This story offers new perspectives on the histories of the Ottoman and Russian Empires, of slavery, and of international law. Will Smiley is a historian of the Middle East and of international and Islamic law, with a particular interest in the Ottoman Empire. It is certain to leave its mark in the fields of Ottoman studies, Eurasian studies, Islamic law, and international law and to find favor with specialists and educated lay readers alike. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
Academic Skip to main content. Search Start Search. Choose your country or region Close. To purchase, visit your preferred ebook provider. Oxford Scholarship Online Available in Oxford Scholarship Online - view abstracts and keywords at book and chapter level. From Slaves to Prisoners of War The Ottoman Empire, Russia, and International Law Will Smiley The History and Theory of International Law Examines the origins of the concept of the "prisoner of war" in the Ottoman Empire, arguing that it had its origins in a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire Tells the story of an alternate path to the rules of modern international law Deepens our understanding of the eighteenth-century Ottoman Empire Examines connections between the Middle East and Eurasia Recenters the history of international relations and international law outside Europe Offers a new perspective on the global history of slavery.
Also of Interest. Bombay's People, Asiya Siddiqi. Atrocity Speech Law Gregory S.
Prisons and Prison Reform
Becoming Ottomans Julia Phillips Cohen. The Cabanatuan prison camp was named after the nearby city of 50, people locals also called it Camp Pangatian, after a small nearby village. After the surrender of tens of thousands of American troops during the Battle of Bataan, many were sent to a Cabanatuan prison camp following the Bataan Death March.
The Japanese transferred most of the prisoners to other areas, leaving just over seriously ill American and other Allied POWs and civilians in the prison. Facing brutal conditions including disease, torture, and malnourishment, the prisoners feared they would all be executed as US forces re took many islands as Japanese conquests were slowly rolled back. Indeed, there were such orders as has been found later, to execute all POWs if invasions were feared.
In a night raid in late January , under the cover of darkness and a distraction by a P Black Widow, the group of US Rangers, Alamo scouts a US special reconnaissance unit and Filipino guerrillas surprised the Japanese forces in and around the camp. Hundreds of Japanese troops were killed in the minute coordinated attack; the Americans suffered minimal casualties. Camp O'Donnell.
It was liberated by the US Army on 30 January A rescue attempt as per Cabanatuan using US Rangers and Filipino guerrillas rescued 2, Allied servicemen and Civilians from this camp. Santo Tomas Internment Camp.
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Opened in , this housed 3, allied civilians released by US Rangers and Filipino Guerrillas on February 3rd Bilibid Prison. Almost all POWs captured in the immediate area of the Phillipines passed through this camp as a major transit hub. To prevent rescue of prisoners of war by the advancing allies, on 14 December , Japanese guards herded the remaining POWs at Puerto Princesa, Palawan Island, into three covered trenches used as air raid shelters which were then set on fire. As prisoners tried to escape the flames they were then bayoneted or shot down.
Some escaped by going over a cliff that ran along one side of the trenches, but were later hunted down and killed.
PRISONERS OF WAR
Only 11 men escaped via holes in the perimeter fence, they later testified in war crimes tribunals. The senior officer of the Japanese army commanding General Tomoyuki Yamashita was executed at Bilibid Prison in after being found guilty of allowing the murder of unarmed POWs. Camp John Hay. About 40 percent were missionaries from 22 different denominations, some who had recently fled China and organized a language school in Baguio.
The other 60 percent were primarily miners and businessmen. Two U. The Japanese appointed Elmer Herod as leader of the internees. Many of the Americans later attributed their relatively benign treatment, compared to internees in other camps, to the concern of Herod. However, living conditions were difficult. All internees were crowded into a single building, which had previously housed 60 soldiers, and the Japanese made little provision for food and water.
Bedding was on the floor and each bed was rolled into a bundle during the day to allow for more space. After a few weeks, because of the obvious need, an additional building was obtained for male internees. The first project for the prisoners was to clean the building. Water had to be carried for one mile as the water main had been broken during the bombing. Drinking water was boiled as chemicals were not available. Lack of water, outside latrines, lack of screens for doors and windows, crowded buildings and the general lethargy of the prisoners contributed to poor sanitation. Intestinal diseases soon developed.
Dysentery became so prevalent among the children, and adults as well, that a small dispensary was set up in the barracks.
Prisoners of war and detainees protected under international humanitarian law
Camp Holmes. Changi Malai 1. There are currently no records online of roster lists, but it is often fruitful to look at other areas a POW could have been sent to locate anything. For most of the war Changi was one of the least brutal Japanese prisoner-of-war camps, particularly compared to those on the Burma—Thailand railway.
Changi was not just one camp but up to seven prisoner-of-war POW and internee camps. Its name came from the peninsula on which it stood, named in turn after a village there for some time before British rule. As a result the site had a well-constructed military infrastructure, including three major barracks — Selerang, Roberts and Kitchener — as well as many other smaller camps. Singapore's civilian prison, Changi Gaol, was also on this peninsula.
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After the fall of Singapore 50, British and other Empire troops were gathered there, but very quickly work details gathered several thousand men from Changi and these were sent to various projects on Sumatra, Burma, and Thailand and other Japanese occupied territories. Most were moved in groups named 'Forces' named from A to L in order of departure see Destinations.
The prisoners of war allocated to this force were all sick men, with diptheria and dysentry amongst other illnesses. The men were regarded as not fit enough to be transferred to working areas but were shipped out of Changi anyway on 13 trains with no ventilation and little food or water.
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The 7, men within this unit composed of 3, British and nearly 3, Australians, the Journey took 5 days and ended at Ban Pong, although then a mile march ensued towards Burma. The camp was in existence until May 31 st , when military prisoners were transferred to Changi prison, while the remaining civilians were moved to Sime Road Camp. Located 4 km south along the coast towards Singapore. It had 4 floors, meters long X yards wide, with walls and the roof made of concrete. In normal times the prison would house prisoners but at one point during the war it had ten times that.
These contain basic details of each POW and in Japanese on the back additional information - that on POWs who died is particularly informative. Changi was liberated by troops of the 5th Indian Division on 5 September and within a week troops were being repatriated. After the war Changi Gaol once again became a civilian prison, while the Changi military area was repaired and redeveloped for use by the British garrison.
Following the withdrawal of British troops in the area was taken over by the Singapore Armed Forces and still has one of the main concentrations of military facilities on the island. Roberts Barracks remains in use but the original buildings at Selerang were demolished in the s. Changi Gaol was scheduled for demolition in the second half of , although the original entrance gate and a section of the outer wall were preserved as a memorial.